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14.  Physically ◦ Rebalance neurotransmitters so the person can experience pleasure in legal activities ◦ Ensure access to safe housing and employment away from negative peer influences ◦ Educate about basic life skills  Sleep  Nutrition  Time management
15.  Emotionally ◦ Address issues such as  Resentment  Grief  Anger  Shame ◦ Identify  Things that make them happy  Reasons for staying clean
16.  Cognitively ◦ Address cognitive patterns such as:  Entitlement  All-or-nothing thinking  Impulsivity (Gotta have it now)  Need for external validation  Personalization (I ain’t nobody’s punk) ◦ Develop problem solving skills
17.  Interpersonally ◦ Improve communication skills (including listening and empathy) ◦ Improve self-esteem to reduce the need for approval and defensiveness at perceived slights ◦ Identify clean, sober friends ◦ Explore prosocial recreation
18.  Occupationally ◦ Use decisional balance activities to improve motivation for mainstream employment ◦ Conduct a “Job Analysis” identifying all skills of mastery ◦ Use a job coach to assist in  Integration in the employment setting  Maintenance of motivation
19.  The benefits to criminal behavior and/or drug use outweigh the drawbacks of jail or other sanctions  Like an addiction, criminal behavior is rewarding to an extreme for some.  Reducing recidivism/relapse involves ◦ Understanding and eliminating what motivates that behavior ◦ Understanding and improving what is unmotivating about prosocial activities
20.  If the criminal behaviors or substance use are serving to help the person escape or avoid pain and continue to be done despite negative consequences, and produces physiological or psychological withdrawal, then it would qualify as an addiction
21.  Evaluate for an underlying mood disorder  Address cognitive distortions  Improve self-esteem  Ensure the work and home environment is free from negative influences (Reintegrative shaming) Reintegrative Shaming and Recidivism Risks in Drug Court: Explanations for Some Unexpected Findings http://cad.sagepub.com/content/46/4/522.short  Provide frequent rewards and validation  Remove benefits of criminal behavior