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Goal Setting, Behavior Modification and Maintaining Motivation
The student will learn about:
How to elicit goals and convert them into observable, measurable goal statements
The goal heirarchy: Goal-Objective-Skills
How to use the 5 Ws to create a functional action plan
The basic principles of behavior modification and how to apply them to help clients achieve goals How to help clients achieve goals through successive approximations
The three dimensions of motivation and how to use all three to support clients
How to identify and overcome barriers to goal achievement
The different types of learning styles and how to most effectively teach both to an individual and a mixed group
How temperament impacts learning and motivation
How to modify your approach to accommodate learning styles and temperaments
Ways to modify the environment to increase energy and motivation
Goal Hierarchy
Goals Objectives (Small Goals/Why)‏ Skills (How) & Knowledge (What/Why)‏
Goals are the overarching reason a person begins to do something.
Often goals are broad and abstract. “I want to be healthier.” “I want to be happy.”
Goals need to be broken down into manageable, meaningful, observable objectives.
Phrase goals as adding a positive instead of removing a negative.
One way to elicit goals is through the miracle question: If you woke up tomorrow and you were _____ (i.e. your problem was resolved/goal was achieved) what would be different?
This gives you insight into the foundations of this particular persons symptoms/definition of the problem.
Objectives need to be put into measurable terms. Frequency, Intensity, Duration
Objectives are small goals that can usually be achieved in 1-3 monthsThey combine to make the ultimate goal a reality.
Skills & Knowledge If you believe that people do the best they can with the tools they have at any given time, then you understand that your client now needs to learn how to change.
The Hook, A.K.A. The 5 Ws
Who is responsible for doing What, When, Where, Why and How
This is your client’s action plan or map
Who (your client)‏
What are they responsible for doing, when and where
Why are they doing it
How is it helping them meet their ultimate goal
Behavior Modification
Behavioran observable, measurable event
Reinforcer something that increases the frequency of a behavior
Reinforcing a quality that ensures the repetition of a behavior
Punishment something that decreases the frequency of a behavior
Punishing a quality that ensures the reduction of a behavior
Contingency If x then y
We only do things in which the reinforcers (positive) outweigh the punishments (negative).
It is vital not only to ask why a person wants to change, but also why he/she does not want to change.

Behavior Strain too much punishment/work without sufficient reward
Too long between initiation of behavior and reward
Using Behavior Modification
Treatment/Action Plan Activity
Write one of the most common reasons people come to see you
Turn that into an observable/measurable goal
Break the goal into 3-5 objectives that clearly state the 5 Ws
What is to be done
Who will do it
When will it be done
Why will it be done
Where will it be done
How (if applicable)‏
Motivation Multidimensional
Emotional—I want to
Intellectual– I need to
Behavioral– I am
Learning Styles
Start with an overview
Follow an outline
Say it
Write it/Read it
Apply it
Sensing(details)/Intuitive (big picture)‏
Caution: Thinkers do not experience anything less intensely than Feelers. They just do it differently.
Goal setting
Behavior Modification Principles
Learning Style