Psychopharmacology Anitdepressants, Mood Stabilizers, Atypical Antipsychotics 3 24 16

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2.  Define Neurobiology  For the following neurotransmitters, Dopamine, GABA, Serotonin, Acetylcholine, identify ◦ Their mechanism of action/purpose ◦ Where they are found ◦ Symptoms of excess & insufficiency ◦ Nutritional building blocks ◦ Medications
3.  Neurobiology is the study of the brain and nervous system which generate sensation, perception, movement, learning, emotion, and many of the functions that make us human
4.  Mechanism of action/purpose ◦ movement ◦ memory ◦ pleasurable reward ◦ behavior and cognition ◦ attention ◦ inhibition of prolactin production ◦ sleep ◦ mood ◦ learning
5.  Mechanism of action/purpose ◦ Altered dopamine neurotransmission is implicated in  Cognitive control (racing thoughts)  Attentional control  Impulse control  Working memory
6.  Where is it found ◦ Precursor, L-DOPA is synthesized in brain and kidneys ◦ Dopamine functions in several parts of the peripheral nervous system  In blood vessels, it inhibits norepinephrine release and acts as a vasodilator (relaxation)  In the kidneys, it increases sodium and urine excretion  In the pancreas, it reduces insulin production  In the digestive system, it reduces gastrointestinal motility and protects intestinal mucosa  In the immune system, it reduces lymphocyte activity.
7.  Symptoms of excess & insufficiency ◦ Excess of dopamine  Unnecessary movements, repetitive tics  Psychosis  Hypersexuality  Nausea  Most antipsychotic drugs are dopamine antagonists  Dopamine antagonist drugs are also some of the most effective anti-nausea agents
8.  Symptoms of excess & insufficiency ◦ Insufficient dopamine  Negative symptoms of schizophrenia  Pain  Parkinson’s Disease  Restless legs syndrome  Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)  Neurological symptoms that increase in frequency with age, such as decreased arm swing and increased rigidity.  Changes in dopamine levels may also cause age-related changes in cognitive flexibility.

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