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2. Define Neurobiology For the following neurotransmitters, Dopamine, GABA, Serotonin, Acetylcholine, identify ◦ Their mechanism of action/purpose ◦ Where they are found ◦ Symptoms of excess & insufficiency ◦ Nutritional building blocks ◦ Medications
3. Neurobiology is the study of the brain and nervous system which generate sensation, perception, movement, learning, emotion, and many of the functions that make us human
4. Mechanism of action/purpose ◦ movement ◦ memory ◦ pleasurable reward ◦ behavior and cognition ◦ attention ◦ inhibition of prolactin production ◦ sleep ◦ mood ◦ learning
5. Mechanism of action/purpose ◦ Altered dopamine neurotransmission is implicated in Cognitive control (racing thoughts) Attentional control Impulse control Working memory
6. Where is it found ◦ Precursor, L-DOPA is synthesized in brain and kidneys ◦ Dopamine functions in several parts of the peripheral nervous system In blood vessels, it inhibits norepinephrine release and acts as a vasodilator (relaxation) In the kidneys, it increases sodium and urine excretion In the pancreas, it reduces insulin production In the digestive system, it reduces gastrointestinal motility and protects intestinal mucosa In the immune system, it reduces lymphocyte activity.
7. Symptoms of excess & insufficiency ◦ Excess of dopamine Unnecessary movements, repetitive tics Psychosis Hypersexuality Nausea Most antipsychotic drugs are dopamine antagonists Dopamine antagonist drugs are also some of the most effective anti-nausea agents
8. Symptoms of excess & insufficiency ◦ Insufficient dopamine Negative symptoms of schizophrenia Pain Parkinson’s Disease Restless legs syndrome Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Neurological symptoms that increase in frequency with age, such as decreased arm swing and increased rigidity. Changes in dopamine levels may also cause age-related changes in cognitive flexibility.